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Scarlet fever: symptomsand diagnosis of the fourth disease. Infection of scarlet fever in children, complications and what you should know.
Scarlet fever, or fourth disease, is a typical pediatric disease that manifests itself with rashes (exanthema) spread on the body, particularly on the groin and buttocks, but also on the hands and feet, sometimes the trunk and other parts of the body. Who is luckier, contracts a very light form ofscarlet fever, almost asymptomatic. Yes, because the extent of this disease can change from person to person.
Unlike the sixth disease, thescarlet feverdoes not see the appearance ofhigh feverindeed, the fever, when present, is generally moderate so as to completely eliminate the risk of convulsive events.
Fourth disease or scarlet fever: symptoms
The fourth disease still has uncertain origins. The scientific community believes that its origins are viral but a small part of the scientific community believes that thescarlet feverbecausedfrom a toxin produced by a bacterium.
Among the typical exanthematous diseases of the pediatric age, thescarlet feverit is generally the one that causes the most confusion. In the past there were misidentifications and often this exanthematous disease was not correctly identified. An objective examination (a medical examination) would suffice for the diagnosis.
Here are what the symptoms would be in children:
- Slight feverish states
- Inflammation of the throat
- Loss of appetite
According to this current of thought *, the reinterpretation of medical data would suggest that scarlet fever was often interpreted as mild rubella in the past.
In children, an erythema appears to appear first, which then leaves room for skin peeling. The exanthema can be of various kinds, it can be either red spots or petechiae, swollen liquid bubbles or blisters. The rash lasts from 1 to 3 days while the following desquamation disappears within 7-10 days.
Scarlet fever children: how to avoid contagion
As stated, thescarlet feverit is a disease linked to the transmission of a virus and as such it iscontagious. If you have children in the house, know that there are some good rules to follow to try tolimit the risk of contagion.
The child with scarlet fever should try to stay mostly in the same room to limit the spread of viruses. The use of disposable handkerchiefs is fundamental. It is equally important to avoid littering dirty handkerchiefs, better to keep a basket next to the bed.
Keep towels and toothbrush separate. Of course, I know that the scarlet fever child has his own toothbrush, however this will need to be kept on the sidelines throughout the course of the disease.
Other precautions to avoid infection among children concern meals. Immediately after meals, it is better to wash the dishes immediately… better if in the dishwasher which, thanks to the high temperatures, is able to wash more accurately. Anyone with a contagious disease should eat their meals in their room.
If you take care of the hygiene of thechild with scarlet fever, wash your hands often and, if you see fit, change your clothes so as not to act as a carrier and transmit the scarlet feverto other children in the house.
Among other good practices:
- Air the room several times a day
- Disinfect commonly used surfaces
- Keep toys of the sick child isolated and, in general, keep toys clean
- Wash the dishes immediately after use
If management is possible at home, in kindergarten it is impossible. Therescarlet feverit's apediatric diseasewhich in kindergartens is transmitted from one child to another very frequently. The reason? The habits of very young children! They pick their noses, sneeze, lose mucus… in practice they become distributors of viruses and bacteria. :) Mucus, saliva and micro-drops emitted by breathing, coughing and sneezing, can, by contact or inhalation, cause contagion.
Does scarlet fever not exist?
It may seem absurd to you but a part of the scientific community, especially militant in the Americas, claims that thescarlet fever does not exist. Despite this assumption, many local ASLs and authoritative portals classify scarlet fever as the fourth disease that arrives in chronological order during childhood. However, it should be noted that many medical manuals the term "Scarlet fever" and now gone and the fourth disease it is described as a misinterpretation of other exanthematous diseases, including the aforementioned rubella.
Please note: regardless of the nature of the disease, the guidelines we have given you are valid to avoid any form of infection, both viral and bacterial. They are valid for measles as well as for rubella, scarlet fever, fourth disease or seasonal flu!
* Source: Morens DM, Katz AR. The "fourth disease" of childhood: re-evaluation of a non-existent disease. "American journal of epidemiology." Am J Epidemiol